The mountains consist of old crystalline rocks surrounded by hard, tightly folded sedimentary rocks on either side. In the pre-colonial era, male education was emphasised in the traditional Buddhist monastic education system. Historically, Myanmar had a high quality education system Traditionally, children were taught at monasteries, and later following British colonization, there was a shift towards a westernized public school system. Inle Lake, near Taunggyi, Myanmar (Burma). Particularly since the … Schooling is compulsory until the end of elementary school. Then for the general public to be able to read, write and calculate, basic training courses known by Ah Thone Lone were implemented. In 1989 the country’s official English name, which it had held since 1885, was changed from the Union of Burma to the Union of Myanmar; in the Burmese language the country has been known as Myanma (or, more precisely, Mranma Prañ) since the 13th century. An intensive adult literacy campaign was initiated in 1983-84, which mobilized educated persons living in villages and urban neighborhoods to bring basic reading and writing skills to over 750,000 adults. Nay Pyi Taw was proclaimed the capital of Myanmar in 2006. Children currently spend five years at primary school, four in lower secondary and two in upper secondary. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The mountain ranges generally run from north to south. Culture. Myanmar’s history of enforced Burmanisation since the era of Ne Win, when all schools were nationalised and Bamar saga became the only language allowed in schools, resulted in widespread resistance on the part of many ethnic groups. Then in 1866, the British established an education centre in lower Myanmar and the monastic education system was transformed into classroom education. Popa Hill, in the Pegu Mountains, Myanmar. Its total length from north to south is about 1,275 miles (2,050 km), and its width at the widest part, across the centre of the country at about the latitude of the city of Mandalay, is approximately 580 miles (930 km) from east to west. The Bassein River (Pathein River) drains the southern Rakhine Mountains, and the Yangon River (Rangoon River) drains the Bago Mountains; both enter the Irrawaddy at the delta. Sule pagoda, in the centre of Yangon, Myanmar. Myanmar, also called Burma, country, located in the western portion of mainland Southeast Asia.In 1989 the country’s official English name, which it had held since 1885, was changed from the Union of Burma to the Union of Myanmar; in the Burmese language the country has been known as Myanma (or, more precisely, Mranma Prañ) since the 13th century. The Chin are constantly persecuted by the present military dictatorship. The country is bordered by China to the north and northeast, Laos to the east, Thailand to the southeast, the Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal to the south and southwest, Bangladesh to the west, and India to the northwest. The vast majority of children in Myanmar attend government-run schools, beginning formal classes each June once they have reached five years of age. Starting with pre-colonial forms of schooling, which occurred almost entirely outside the confines of the state, the chapter traces the evolution through colonisation and the country’s independence to the non-state and state-provided education systems that exist today. In the centre of the basin and structurally connected with the Bago Mountains and their northern extension is a line of extinct volcanoes with small crater lakes and eroded cones, the largest being Popa Hill, at 4,981 feet (1,518 metres). All rights reserved. Like the mountains, Myanmar’s main rivers run from north to south. Many of its tributaries are more than 300 miles (480 km) long and join the Salween in cascades. © Copyright 2021 The Myanmar Times. Figure 2. In an attempt to raise the national educational level, a special four-year plan was implemented beginning from 2000-2001 to 2003-2004 financial year. Associate Professor of Asian Studies, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. The remote, western hills of Burma are home to a population of some 500,000 Chin people and their state is widely acknowledged to be the poorest part of the country. Progress and Completion in Education. in Forestry, 5-6 years of study. In the same region, however, when the soil has a low clay content, it becomes saline under high evaporation and is recognizable by its yellow or brown colour. From north to south, the Patkai Range, Naga Hills, and Chin Hills form the border between India and Myanmar. The coastal areas consist of the narrow Rakhine and Tenasserim plains, which are backed by the high ranges of the Rakhine and Tenasserim mountains and are fringed with numerous islands of varying sizes. The central basin and lowlands, lying between the Rakhine Mountains and the Shan Plateau, are structurally connected with the folding of the western ranges. Education in Myanmar is the main theme of the seminar that was held at the Australian National University, Centre for UNESCO building at 5 Liversidge Street on Wednesday, 31 March 2004 at 4:30 p.m. 2. In Myanmar, where more than 80 per cent of the population lives in rural areas, monastic schools fill a significant gap in the education sector. 1 Basic Education System 1.1 The current basic education system in Myanmar comprises six years of primary (Grade 1 to Grade 6), three years of lower secondary (Grade 7 to Grade 9) and two years of upper secondary (Grade 10 and Grade 11) education. During British colonial rule, educational access for women improved tremendously. One of the primary areas that would benefit from reform is Burma’s education system. The basin was deeply excavated by the predecessors of the Irrawaddy, Chindwin, and Sittang rivers; the valleys are now occupied by these rivers, which cover the ancient soft sandstones, shales, and clays with alluvial deposits. After the independence, the public schools started reaching all parts of… Its great tributary, the Chindwin, drains the western region. At independence, Myanmar had the highest literacy rate in … or B.Sc. This chapter provides an overview of the historical development of educational provision in Myanmar. Then again a thirty-year national education plan starting from 2001-2002 till 2030-2031 financial year has been earmarked and five short-term planning periods have been implemented. Education System . The upper courses of these rivers all flow through deep gorges within a short distance of each other, separated by steep, sheer peaks. Myanmar slopes from north to south, from an elevation of 19,296 feet (5,881 metres) at Mount Hkakabo (the country’s highest peak) in the extreme north to sea level at the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) and Sittang (Sittoung) river deltas. Science, Technology and Innovation. Updates? In 2005 the government began to shift its administrative centre, first to the city of Pyinmana (some 200 miles [320 km] north of Yangon) and then to Nay Pyi Taw (Naypyidaw), a newly constructed city near Pyinmana. Launching New Programs Omissions? The Education Reconstruction Committee of 1947 decided that Myanmar needed a homogeneous system of schools and that the education system had to be state provided and state controlled (Lwin 2000:5). The lowland regions are covered with alluvial soils—mainly silt and clay. There is a very high level of enthusiasm and … 1.1.2 Education and People with Disabilities in Myanmar The history of education for PWDs in Myanmar has seen numerous plans made by the government for the benefit of PWDs but has yet to find success in implementation. Progress and Completion in Education The University of Yangon Act was passed by the Myanmar Legislative Council in September 1920 and the foundation of Yangon University took place in December 1920. General Information . The National Education Strategic Plan (NESP) 2016-21 was developed as a result of a nationwide comprehensive education sector review, which started in 2012. Low in nutrients and organic matter, they are improved by fertilizers. Then in June, 1925 Mandalay College was founded as an affiliated institution to University of Yangon. Following an optional pre-school period, children enter primary school for 5 compulsory years. It simply highlights a need to accompany investment in the expansion of the system with policies that enable access to tertiary education for those who are most able to benefit. Since 1971, four-year education plans were laid down. In the dry belt of the central region are found red-brown soils rich in calcium and magnesium. Myanmar - History Background; Myanmar - Educational System—overview; Myanmar - Administration, Finance, Educational Research; Myanmar - Teaching Profession; Myanmar - Summary; Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.com Global Education Reference The Rakhine coastal plains are drained by short, rapid streams, which, after forming broad deltas, flow into the Bay of Bengal. Author of. Universities in Myanmar remain highly centralized and state run. The story of the education system in Myanmar is closely interweaved with the political situation. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Myanmar. Ruins of ancient Buddhist shrines and pagodas, Pagan, Myanmar. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Participation in Education. Education in Burma is not only inaccessible to many people but also heightens existing ethnic tensions. Education specialists agree that the curriculum is badly in need of reform and would also benefit from the introduction of modern teaching methods and technology. Nearly all schools are government-operated, but recently, there has been an increase in privately funded schools (which specialise in English). The northern mountains consist of a series of ranges that form a complex knot at Mount Hkakabo. Meeting demand The obvious challenge for policy-makers in Myanmar would appear to be around the scale and mix of investment in higher education. The Shan Plateau is drained by the Salween River, which enters Myanmar from southern China and empties into the Gulf of Martaban southeast of the Sittang. Education since 1975 An important goal of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (LPDR) government was to establish a system of universal primary education by 1985. Somewhat smaller is Inle Lake, stretching about 14 miles (22 km) from north to south and 7 miles (11 km) from east to west, on the Shan Plateau. In the deltaic regions formed by the Irrawaddy and Sittang rivers, the landscape is absolutely flat, and the monotony is relieved only by a few blocks of erosion-resistant rocks that are never more than 60 feet (18 metres) high. EDUCATION IN MYANMAR 1. Symposiums were held on the basic education sector and plans were drawn up for implementation. Of these, some 63%, or 28,519 facilities, were primary schools (with 5.18m students) and 14%, or 6224 institutions, were lower … The Shan Plateau to the east rises abruptly from the central basin, often in a single step of some 2,000 feet (600 metres). In terms of plate tectonics, this knot marks the northeastern limit of the encroaching Indian-Australian Plate, which has been colliding with the southern edge of the Eurasian Plate for roughly the past 50 million years and thrusting up the mountain ranges of Myanmar and beyond. While there has been a sizable increase in the number of schools, colleges, universities, and teachers during the last five years, the percentage of total education expenditure declined … In olden days there were Buddhist monasteries in every corner of the country including in towns, villages and most of these monasteries had schools attached. Education and Literacy. Participation in Education . Myanmar education is basically run by government ministries and most universities are based in the divisions of Yangon and Mandalay. In 1884 Yangon College was established and was affiliated to Calcutta University in India. Five years of primary education, beginning at age five, are compulsory; in some remote rural areas, however, formal schooling may not be available. Sri Lanka, India, and Indonesia are just a few places where you might travel to get a taste for new cultues, cuisines, and languages. This region contains the sources of several of Asia’s great rivers, including the Irrawaddy, which rises and flows wholly within Myanmar, and the Salween (Thanlwin), which rises to the north in China. Therefore, kids, especially boys attended the traditional Buddhist monastic education system. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Council on Foreign Relations - Understanding Myanmar, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Burma, Myanmar - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Myanmar - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Occupying the eastern half of the country, it is deeply dissected, with an average elevation of about 3,000 feet (900 metres). The plateau was formed during the Mesozoic Era (about 250 to 65 million years ago) and thus is a much older feature than the western mountains, but the plateau also shows more-recent and intensive folding, with north-south longitudinal ranges rising steeply to elevations of 6,000 to 8,600 feet (1,800 to 2,600 metres) above the plateau surface. Northward, the plateau merges into the northern mountains, and southward it continues into the Dawna Range and the peninsular Tenasserim Mountains (Tanintharyi Mountains), each a series of parallel ranges with narrow valleys. The Myanmar government has made reform of the entire higher education system a national priority. Abstract. Since Myanmar’s internal conflicts are long-lasting and complex, the new education system should help people understand the underlying causes of current ethnic conflicts, contribute to social transformation and the peace process as well as learn non-violent ways of responding to conflict. Myanmar 2018 Education Budget Brief Introduction In its latest update to its PFM Strategy, MoPF stressed on the need for transparency of public financial management system, and encouraged the release of budgetary information to stakeholders and the public, referring inter alia to a … In 1947, it was upgraded to a degree college. In olden days there were Buddhist monasteries in every corner of the country including in towns, villages and most of these monasteries had schools attached. The basin is divided into two unequal parts, the larger Irrawaddy valley and the smaller Sittang valley, by the Bago Mountains. From … Stretching from latitude 10° N to about 28° 30′ N, Myanmar is the northernmost country of Southeast Asia; it is shaped like a kite with a long tail that runs south along the Malay Peninsula. In terms of opportunity, by the time we are able to implement this education strategic plan, our education system will be compatible with other countries at least in terms of system. Myanmar has a long tradition of educational achievement, and about nine-tenths of the population is literate. This was mirrored by an increase in female employment. For the poor and disadvantaged in remote areas who have no access to or cannot afford to go to public schools, monastic schools are often the only source of education, providing free tuition and textbooks. Their average elevation is about 6,000 feet (1,800 metres), although some peaks rise to 10,000 feet (3,000 metres) or higher. The provision of education and health care is very limited and what exists is under-resourced. Student enrollment in university in 2014 was 550,000. The Tenasserim plains also are drained by short and rapid rivers, which enter the Gulf of Martaban. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Education System. Nevertheless, this is a successful non-sate education regime which offers a model for dual-language schooling in a multi-ethnic country such as Burma - a prototype ‘federal’ education system. in education outputs. The higher education system follows a 4-1-3 year program with 4 years for a bachelor's degree, one year of qualifying classes, and 3 years for a master's degree. Then work on education research and census on education was also carried out. The education system is based on the United Kingdom’s system, due to nearly a century of British presence in Myanmar. But there are 150 universities and colleges that are divided into 14 divisions and states. One of the main drivers is the recognition of the important role of human capital to the economic development goals of the country. Myanmar, also called Burma, country, located in the western portion of mainland Southeast Asia. After gaining independence in 1948, the government launched the new education system as part of the “Welfare Plans” in 1953. Myanmar, also known as Burma, was long considered a pariah state while under the rule of an oppressive military junta from 1962 to 2011. dual–administration education system). Corrections? Browse by country. Teaching revolves around textbook instruction with little to no research focus. In 2005, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs officially announced that Burma education was reaching an international standard and the government had fully entitled to 156 universities and colleges in Myanmar. Then after 1962 some of these faculties were transformed into separate universities. The quality of school teachers may be excellent, however aging materials sadly let them down. Faculties in Medicine, Engineer, Education, Law, Arts, Science, Agriculture, Social Science and Forestry were established with their respective training courses before 1962. The ESS was begun in 1990 and Phase I—Final Report (of the diagnostic phase) was completed in 1992. When protected by forest cover, these soils absorb the region’s heavy rain, but they erode quickly once the forest has been cleared. According to Ministry of Education (MoE) figures, in the 2015/16 school year Myanmar had 45,387 schools catering to 8.85m children. The basic read, write and calculate training courses known by Ah Thone Lone began in the year 1964-1965. Flowing entirely through Myanmar, it is navigable for nearly 1,000 miles (1,600 km). Historically, Burma, officially called Myanmar, has not supported and has even been hostile to education. The Education Sector Study (ESS), a collaborative effort of the Ministry of Education, UNESCO and the UN Development Program (UNDP), was a watershed in the development of education in Myanmar. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. In Myanmar once also known as Burma decades of political conflict have reduced a once-proud education system to one that is lagging sadly. Tertiary: Undergraduate Education - Degree Oriented: 3: 3-4 years : Tertiary: Graduate Education: 5: Master's or M.B.B.S. Since Myanmar’s internal conflicts are long-lasting and complex, the new education system should help people understand the underlying causes of current ethnic conflicts, contribute to social transformation and the peace process as well as learn non-violent ways of responding to conflict. In 1931, the Teachers’ Training College (TTC) was established as a constituent college of the college of the University of Yangon. Indawgyi Lake, in the northern hills, runs some 15 miles (24 km) from north to south and 8 miles (13 km) from east to west; it is one of the largest natural inland lakes of Southeast Asia. The country as a whole can be divided into five physiographic regions—the northern mountains, the western ranges, the eastern plateau, the central basin and lowlands, and the coastal plains. Currently, Myanmar high schools go up to 10 th standard, or 11 th grade, while other countries have a 12-grade system and a university entrance exam which we don’t have. The education of Myanmar first began during the time of ancient kings and had been regarded as important and significant. Secondary education consists of a four-year cycle followed by a two-year cycle. General Information. Electrification is vital to fight against... Week in Review: Tourist arrivals fall 75% in... Myanmar among five Asian countries needing... Nay Pyi Taw vows to take action against... 16 Myanmar migrants victims of fraud in... NLD expected to take all chief minister posts. Engineering takes 6 year of study and … It is deeply entrenched and crosses the plateau in a series of deep gorges. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Boat on the Irrawaddy River, Myanmar (Burma). Universities offer bachelor's degree programs, master's degree programs, and doctorate degree programs. The western ranges traverse the entire western side of Myanmar, from the northern mountains to the southern tip of the Rakhine (Arakan) Peninsula, where they run under the sea and reappear as the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Myanmar has two major lakes. Primary Education. About three-fifths of Myanmar’s surface is drained by the Irrawaddy and its tributaries. The French system of education was replaced with a Laotian curriculum, although lack of teaching materials has impeded effective instruction. At the apex of its delta, the Irrawaddy breaks up into a vast network of streams and empties into the Andaman Sea through multiple mouths. With the opening of the new college, the Diploma in Education classes was discontinued. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Sort out the facts in this quiz all about the diverse countries and cities around Asia. The number of female students enrolled in school rose 61% (by 45,000 students) from 1911-1921, and another 82% (100,000 students) from 1921 to 1931 with expansion of the colonial and private education system, primarily in the form of all-girls schools. The first teachers’ training school was established in Yangon in the year 1876. In Ayeyawady Division, there are 12 universities and colleges; 9 in Bago division; 1 in Chin State; 8 in Kachin State; 3 in kayah State; 4 in Kayin State; 14 in Magway division; 32 in … A brief history of education in Myanmar The education of Myanmar first began during the time of ancient kings and had been regarded as important and significant. The highland regions of Myanmar are covered with highly leached, iron-rich, dark red and reddish brown soils. Inle Lake is fed by dozens of streams. The Mon context offers another successful case study. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Sittang flows into the Gulf of Martaban of the Andaman Sea, and, for a comparatively short river, it has a large valley and delta. Structure of Education System in Myanmar Source: Panorama of Myanmar Higher Education (June, 2012) The credit system introduced in 2000-01 AY is being revised in tandem with new courses in order to facilitate Myanmar Students in transferring credits to foreign HEIs on student exchange programs. The NESP represents an important milestone for education in Myanmar, as the country’s very first education sector plan in the context of a major transition towards democracy. Discussions about the education system in Myanmar often tend to be dominated by the curriculum. To the south of these are the Rakhine Mountains (Arakan Mountains), which lie entirely within Myanmar and separate the coastal strip from the central basin. Myanmar's educational system has been suffering from a proportionately declining budget. When Myanmar gained her independence, new education plans were drawn up and since 1952, four year education plans were implemented. The English name of the city that served as the country’s capital from 1948 to 2006, Rangoon, also was dropped in 1989 in favour of the common Burmese name, Yangon. In 1922, the Department of Education was established at Yangon University College and the diploma education course was introduced. Later in 1947, the first State Teachers’ Training College (S.T.T.C) was opened in Yangon. Entrenched and crosses the plateau in a series of ranges that form a complex knot Mount... Of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu followed by a two-year cycle classes discontinued. High school students majority of children in Myanmar remain highly centralized and state run valley! Meeting demand the obvious challenge for policy-makers in Myanmar is closely interweaved with political! 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